Great Books of the World – Part 17

“Is man wrong to reach beyond his established boundaries?
The answer is, what is the motive?
If it is to extend the boundary of knowledge,
then it is right for him to explore wherever he can.
But if the motive is to gain an advantage which will
enable him to do harm to others with whom he shares his planet,
then there can be no justification for it.”

Miyoshi

 

This spiritual post is about someone so special that he is called “Prince among men, a man in a million”, who is revered in a way no one else is in today’s India. His influence in his days was so profound that those who met him were instantly captivated by his magnetic and complex personality, his vast knowledge of virtually anything and everything, his wisdom, his ability to speak on any subject without preparation and anywhere, and his legendary, unique memory. He was one of the greatest thinkers of all time, and to get the right perspective and to be able to write about him, I studied all 8 volumes of his work and was greatly impressed by his ideas, his thoughts, and his passionate beliefs.

THE  WANDERING  MONK

This sequel to the life story of Swami Vivekananda is devoted to his years as a wandering monk. It started when in July 1890, he left the monastery and lasted until he boarded a steamer SS Peninsular on 31st May 1893 to sail to America.

The very appearance of Narendranath in his saffron robe with a kamandalu or an ascetic’s water pot in one hand and the danda or staff in the other, his only other possessions being his two favourite books: the Bhagavad Gita and The Imitation of Christ, made him instantly noticeable wherever he went. He travelled mainly on foot. The first city he visited was Varanasi, the home of monks, the centre of learning, and the seat of Lord Shiva. Although I wrote about his stay at Varanasi in my last post, I am writing about it again as this is how his days as a wandering monk started. There, Swami met with many scholars and sanyasis and exchanged many ideas with them. He wanted to earn everything about the different religious practices. What made a lasting impression on Swamiji was the atmosphere of holiness, the sacred Ganges, the praying votaries, the temples of Viswanath and Annapurna, the knowledge that both Buddha and Shankaracharya had preached there. During his wandering, he developed a deeply felt desire to help the poor, often starving masses.

He also visited nearby Sarnath, where Buddha had preached his first sermons. During his stay, Swamiji had a unique experience that taught him a lesson, which years later, he recounted in a lecture in New York. It was a simple encounter with monkeys, who shrieked, howled, and chased him. He sought refuge in a temple but was advised by an old sanyasi, who was passing by, to confront them. When he accosted the monkeys, they fled. Swamiji referred to this incident as a lesson for life and advised people to “face any situation boldly, and then, like monkeys, the hardships of life fall back.”

Next, he visited Ayodhya, which was the birthplace of Lord Rama and also the kingdom where Ram had introduced Ram-rajya. An ancient town, Ayodhya is regarded as one of the seven sacred cities of the Hindus, revered because of its association in the great Indian epic poem Ramayana with the birth of Rama and with the rule of his father, Dasharatha. According to this source, the town was prosperous and well fortified and had a large population.

Ayodhya

From Ayodhya, he went to Lucknow, where he was awestruck by the splendours erected by the Oudh dynasty. Lucknow became important in 1528, when it was captured by Babur, the first Mughal ruler of India. Under Akbar, his grandson, the city became part of Oudh province. Āṣaf al-Dawlah, who became Nawab of Oudh (now Ayodhya) in 1775, transferred his capital from Faizabad to Lucknow.

The Chota Imambara monument in Lucknow, the capital of Uttar Pradesh

Charbagh Railway Station in Lucknow

Swamiji’s next stop was Agra, where the Taj Mahal filled him with wonder and admiration. There was an early reference to an “Agravana” in the ancient Sanskrit epic Mahabharata, and Ptolemy is said to have called the site “Agra.” The city was founded by Sultan Sikandar of the Lodi dynasty in the early 16th century to be the capital of the Delhi sultanate. Agra also served as the Mughal capital during some periods of that empire.

The Taj Mahal was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983. A complex mausoleum, the Taj Mahal is often considered to be the world’s best example of Mughal architecture. The Mughal emperor Shah Jahan built it for his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal, in the mid-17th century.

The Taj Mahal in Agra

The Agra Fort (16th century), shown below, is called the Red Fort for its massive red sandstone walls, and was built by the emperor Akbar; it contains the Pearl Mosque, constructed of white marble, and a palace, the Jahangiri Mahal. The fort was also designated a World Heritage site in 1983.

After Agra, it was Vrindavan, the erstwhile abode of Lord Krishna, and there, Swamiji was in ecstasy. The town is the sacred centre of the Hindu deity Krishna and those who worship him, and is a major pilgrimage site. It was in Vrindavan and its surrounding forests that the key events of Krishna’s mythological life took place.

The Sri Sri Krishna Balaram Mandir (Iskcon Hindu Temple) in Vrindavan

Swamiji planned to go to Haridwar from Vrindavan, and in that direction, he approached the Hathras railway station where he found his first disciple in Sarat Chandra Gupta, the assistant station master. Sarat Chandra was so enamoured by Swamjij’s personality and preaching, that he gave up his job, renounced the world, and joined Swamjij in his wandering. Accompanied by Sarat, Swamjij moved on to Hrishikesh.

Hrishikesh Temple

There, they both lived in the company of other sadhus and passed their time in spiritual discussions and disciplines. The closeness of the murmuring Ganges, the call of the Himalayas, beckoning him from the mountain tops made Swamjij elated.

However, as the saying goes – tell God your plans, make Him laugh – first Sarat fell seriously ill, then Swamjij fell ill too. On the insistence of his disciple, Swamjij had to return to Calcutta (Kolkata) where he stayed for almost a year before he set out for another sojourn, first to Baidyanath Dham in Bihar.

Basukinath Temple, one of the most auspicious temples dedicated to Lord Shiva in Baidyanath Dham

Naulakha Mandir, a 146-feet-high temple dedicated to the divine duo of Radha and Krishna, is located close to the main temple.

The news of the illness of another disciple at Allahabad (Prayagraj) made Swamiji change his itinerary from Varanasi to Allahabad, the city of the confluence of the Ganga, Yamuna and the mythological Saraswati.

Allahabad

Allahabad University

From Allahabad, Swamiji went to Ghazipur to meet Pawhari Baba, a master in the Advaita Vedanta system. It was at Ghazipur that he had the first opportunity to give his treatise on the Sanatana Dharma to some European officials who had come to meet him, and who, after listening to him, encouraged him to go to Europe to preach his ideas.

Pohari Baba Math in the ancient city of Ghazipur, a historical city full of traditional substance, established by Syed Masood who ruled until 1330. Earlier the city was known as Gadhipuri, though later it was changed to Ghazipur.

From Ghazipur, Swamiji went back to Varanasi, where the death of Balaram Bose – the great lay devotee of Master – on 13th April 1890, sent him back to Calcutta. With the death of Surendra Nath Mitra – another great lay devotee of the Master and a benefactor of the Math – on 25th May, the brotherhood experienced a financial crunch. Girish Ghosh and Mahendra Nath and some others did extend help heartily but it was not sufficient. The monks decided to lead a wandering life and thus reduce the expenses of the Math. This time Swamiji stayed in the monastery for about three months, and then set out again in the third week of July, with the same determination of not returning until the time he had achieved his spiritual goal. This time, at least in the initial phase, Gangadhar, whom Swamiji affectionately addressed as “Ganges,” accompanied him. Their first halt was Bhagalpur, where they put up at Manmatha Nath Chowdhury’s place. Manmatha Babu was a staunch Brahmo who was ‘re-Hinduised’ by  Swamiji’s eloquence and spirituality.

Bhagalpur

Swamiji also interacted with the Jain monks at the temple of Nathanagar and found out the relationship between Jainism and Buddhism. The next stop was Baidyanath Dham, and from there they went to Ghazipur and after that to Ayodhya, where they met Mahant Janakibar Saran, a scholar of Sanskrit and Persian.

Phalgu River, Bihar

The next place on Swamiji’s itinerary was Nainital and from there they reached Almora en route to Badrikashram. One day, Swamiji was meditating under a peepal tree at a place called Kakrighat, situated about fourteen miles away from Almora at the confluence of the two rivers Koshi and Swial, when he experienced seeing “the whole universe within an atom.”

A Peepal Tree

It was also near Almora that Swamiji came across a solitary cave where he started performing the most severe forms of spiritual practice in search of the Truth. At Almora, Swamiji met other devotees of the Master and they left for Garhwal on the way to Badrinath Dham. However, the government closed the road to Badrinath, and Swamiji, and the others, after wandering in the Garhwal and Tehri, finally reached Dehradun about two months later.

Remnants of now submerged Tehri

The ancient Baori Shiva temple on the outskirts of Dehradun, was where Swami Vivekananda rested for three weeks in 1890, on his way to the Himalayas. 

Shiv Mandir, another temple dedicated to Shiva, in Dehradun, shown below. It is popularly known as Prakasheshwar Mahadev Mandir among locals as well as devotees.  Here you can see many pictures and idols of gods and goddesses . Every day the temple is decorated with flowers. Special poojas are held on the occasion of Shivratri & Sawaan.

Swamiji once again went to Hrishikesh, where he had an attack of diphtheria and was saved by a sadhu. The Devan of Tehri was passing by Hrishikesh at that time and on learning about Swamiji’s illness visited and referred him to an hakim or a Mohammedan doctor in Delhi.  But Swamiji, feeling better, proceeded to Hardwar first, then to Saharanpur, and then to Meerut where he was reunited with a few of his disciples, and they set up a second  Baranagar Math in the garden at the Sheth-ji’s garden. They passed the time meditating, praying, singing devotional songs, and studying the scriptures and other literature in Sanskrit and English.

Hastinapur, near Meerut

After some weeks Swamiji left his devoted brethren at Meerut and traveled alone to Delhi. It was the later half of 1891. The imperial bearings of the city, its long history as a capital of India, both under Hindu and Muslim dynasties, and the crisp winter air, all impressed the learned monk greatly.

The Red Fort in Delhi

From Delhi, Swamiji set off for Rajasthan. His first stop was there was the erstwhile princely kingdom of Alwar. At the state dispensary, he met a doctor-in-charge, who was a Bengali. He guided Swamiji to a room at the local market where the Swamiji could put up and introduced him to a Muslim friend of his who was a teacher of Urdu and Persian at the local high school.

Neemrana Fort Palace in Alwar

An Indian Market

Soon, the news of Swamiji’s depth in religious matters spread, and the increasing daily gathering forced his host to move Swamiji to the house of Pandit Shambhunath, a retired engineer. Both Hindus and Muslims of various castes and sects, and belonging to different social strata came to him, and Swamiji treated them all alike. Many would then become his devotees and he would partake many of his meals at the houses of his Muslim followers too.

Maharaja Palace in Alwar

There, Swamiji met the Maharaja of Alwar, Mangal Singhji, and he was enamoured by Swamiji’s intelligence and knowledge. They held many discussions and Swamiji was always the winner.

City Palace in Jaipur

Next, Swamiji spent two weeks in the Kingdom of Jaipur, where he became friendly with Sardar Hari Singh, the Commander-in-Chief of the state, at whose place he spent some days discussing spiritual and scriptural matters.

Ajmer

From Jaipur, he moved on Ajmer, a city replete with memories of the magnificence of its Hindu and Muslim rulers, and the seat of the dargah of the Muslim saint Moinuddin Chisti, who is revered by both Muslim and Hindu alike.

Mount Abu

From Ajmer, Swamiji proceeded to Mount Abu; the town is a noted hill resort and the site of the famous Jain temples or the Dilwara Temples, built of marble, an architectural delight. Tejpal temple, built about 1200 CE, is known for the delicacy and richness of its carving, especially for that on the underside of its dome. The earlier Vimala Vahasi temple, built about 1031, is simpler and bolder in style. Guru Peak on Mount Abu (5,650 feet or 1,722 metres) is the highest point in the Aravalli Range.

Luna Vasahi Temple in the Dilwara temple complex

It was there that Swamiji met the Raja of Khetri, who became one of his greatest devotees. It was the Muslim man who first met Swamiji in a cave in the rocks of the mountain and was so influenced by Swamiji knowledge, that he begged him to come and stay at his bungalow. To this bungalow, during Swamiji’s stay, came Munshi Jagmohanlal, the private secretary to the Raja of Khetri. He asked how a Hindu monk could stay at a Muslim’s place. Swamiji replied, “Neither God nor the scriptures envisaged such division but it was the society that enforced such division to suit itself.” Jagmohan was dumbfounded at both Swamiji’s reply and the radiance emanating from him and invited Swamiji to meet his King.

Hawa Mahal Palace in Khetri

According to the state diary of the Khetri state, the first meeting of Raja Ajit Singh of Khetri with Swamiji took place in the presence of Hardayal Singh of Jodhpur on 4th June 1891. Over the next few days, the Raja broached various subjects to Swamiji, who also sang in his beautiful voice to entertain the royal guests. His words of wisdom influenced the Raja beyond imagination and he begged Swamiji to come to Khetri with him and give him the opportunity “to serve… with my whole heart.”

Swamiji left Mount Abu with the Raja of Khetri, and after travelling through Jaipur, Khairthal, and Kota, they reached Khetri on 7th August 1891. Satisfied with the spiritual inclination of the Raja, Swamiji gave him several lessons in spirituality. Swamiji was much moved by the depth and sincerity of the Raja, and he became one of the few privileged ones to receive Swamiji’s letters even from America.

Letters from Swamiji to the Raja

At Khetri, a chance encounter with a nautch (intricate Indian dancing) girl taught Swamiji a very valuable lesson. One night, the Raja had brought over a nautch girl to entertain his guests, Swamiji being one of them. But Swamiji declined to go and see her perform. This saddened the girl and she started singing a composition of the Vaishnav saint Surdas, a couplet that stressed the manifestation of the One in all beings. Swamiji realised that he could not discriminate against anyone. He immediately went to the hall where the guests had gathered.

A nautch dancer

Swamiji was at Khetri for more than two-and-half months and left for Ajmer on 27th October 1891. After two weeks there he left for Bombay Presidency, now joined into provinces of Gujarat and Maharashtra. The first on his list was Ahmedabad, earlier known as Karnavati and one of the most handsome cities of India. The city was founded in 1411 by the Muslim ruler of Gujarat, Sultan Ahmad Shah, next to the older Hindu town of Asawal. Ahmadabad grew larger and wealthier for a century, but dynastic decay and anarchy eventually brought about a decline, and the city was captured in 1572 by the Mughal emperor Akbar. Its renewed eminence under the Mughals ceased with the death of Aurangzeb in 1707. Swamiji was fascinated by the splendour of the architecture and culture of the Sultans of Gujarat, under whose reign Ahmedabad had served as the capital.

Shree Swaminarayan Mandir Kalupur is the first Temple of the Swaminarayan Sampraday, a Hindu sect. It is located in Kalupur area of Ahmedabad, which is the largest city in Gujarat. It was built on the instructions of Swaminarayan, the founder of the sect.

Swaminarayan temple in Ahmedabad

The Royal Mosque in Ahmedabad

The next stop was Limbdi where he went via Kathiawar. During local princely states existence in Kathiawar, there were approximately 222 small and medium princely states. During that era, Limbdi was also a princely state. During the time span from 1768 to 1948, many rulers had taken charge of Limbdi starting from Harisinhji, Bhojrajji, Harbhamji, Fatesinhji, Jashwantsinhji, Jatashankar. The prince of the state was greatly impressed by Swamiji’s preaching on Vedanta and gave Swamiji the idea of going to the West, he himself having visited England and America a few years earlier.

Shri Swaminarayan Mandir in Limbdi

After leaving Limbdi, Swamiji went to Junagadh via Bhavnagar and Sirohi. Thakore Sahib had given him a letter of introduction, and at Junagagh he was the guest of Haridas Viharidas Desai, the Diwan of the state. The Ashoka Stone  –  situated on the outskirts of the town – had the inscriptions of Emperor Ashoka and was of great interest to Swamiji. He also visited the nearby pilgrimage site Girnar, a conglomeration of ten hills, the highest of which is known as Gorakhnath. The Girnar is sacred to Buddhists, the Jains, and the Hindus alike, and ten thousand-odd steps, cut into the rocks, lead to many Jain and Hindu temples built on the different hills.

The Girnar

Temple of Gorakhnath

Swamiji’s next destination was the ancient city of Veraval and the great ruins of Patan Somnath, which have been destroyed and rebuild seven times. There are many myths and legends tagged to the temple. As per one, the ancient temple of Somnath is believed to have been built by Som – the Moon god himself. It is said that due to a curse the Moon lost its gleam. To break the curse, he took a holy dip at the site of Prabhas Patan, which is also a confluence of three holy rivers – Hiran, Kapila and the mythical river Saraswati, and prayed to Lord Shiva. Hence, Lord Shiva appeared here as ‘Somnath’ – Lord of the Moon, who freed him from the curse.

The Somnath Temple, Veraval

 

Swamiji also visited the new Somnath Temple built by Rani Ahalyabai of Indore. He bathed at the confluence of the mythological Saraswati, Hiranya, and Kapila rivers.

Sudama Temple, Porbandar

Soon after, Swamiji visited another ancient city of Sudamapuri, near Porbandar. Here, he was the guest of Pandit Shankar Pandurang, the Dewan and administrator of Porbandar, and a great Vedic scholar, who was at that time translating the Vedas. At the insistence of Pandit Pandurang, Swamiji stayed on for some days at Porbandar and helped him with the book. While at Porbandar, Swamijij read Panini’s Mahabhashya and learned French on Pandi’s insistence. Pandit told Swamiji to go to the West where “people will understand you and your worth.”

Hari Mandir, Porbandar

At around this time, Swamiji started thinking of travelling abroad to America and Europe. He was very much disturbed at the degradation of the glorious ancient culture of his country by the stupid activities and dichotomous lives of its so-called leaders who preached reforms but did not practise them, and blinded by the glare of foreign rulers were trying to suppress the age-old experiences of the native culture. He, therefore, felt that in order to enable the civilised world to have a truer picture of India, he must first reach out to them.  He had become restless to bring about a spiritual regeneration in India.

Dwarka

The next destination was Dwarka, a city resplendent with legends of Lord Krishna, to whom the stunning Dwarkadhish Temple is dedicated. It has been said that the temple is 5244 years old. It was built by Vajranabh, the great-grandson of Sri Krishna. This is where the Hari Griha or the home of the Hari or Krishna once stood, making this land holy. The five-storey structure of the Dwarkadhish Temple is built on seventy-two pillars. The temple spire is 78.3m high. From the temple dome, an eighty-four-foot long multicoloured flag decorated with the symbols of the sun and moon waves with beautiful colours of the rainbow. The Jagat Mandir has a tall tower and a hall of audience for mass announcements for devotees. There are only two entrances to the temple. The main entrance (north entrance) is known as “Moksha Dwara” (meaning Door to Salvation). The south entrance is known as “Swarga Dwara” (meaning Gate to Heaven). Outside this doorway, there are 56 steps that lead to the Gomati River.

The Tower (Shikhara) over the Garbha Griha is built in a style replicating a mountain peak. There are 7 stories clearly visible, sometimes attributed to Dwarka being one of the 7 ancient cities or Sapta-Puris of India. The seven cities being Ayodhya, Mathura, Maya, Kashi, Avantika, Kanchipuram and Dwarka. Each Story represents a Puri with the bottom one representing the Dwarka. Looking at all the stories in one frame is like watching the whole of India represented in the temple.

The Tower of Dwarkhadish Temple

In Dwarka, Swamiji put up at the Sarada Math, the monastery founded by the Shankaracharya. The ruins at Dwarka saddened him deeply.

Shatrunjaya Hill Temple, Palitana

His next stop was Mandvi in Kutch, from where he traveled to Palitana, where the holy mountain Shatrunjaya – sacred to Muslims and Jains alike  – is situated. There are approximately 863 marble-carved temples on the hills spread mostly in nine clusters, some being vast temple complexes, while most small in size. The temples were built over a period of 900 years starting in the 11th century. Kumarpal Solanki, a great Jain patron, probably built the earliest temples. It is said that sculptors’ skills and capacity to carve with abrasive cords (not tools) the intricate designs was paid on the basis of the marble dust that they had collected every evening after their hard labour.

From Palitana, he moved to Nadiad, where he stayed at the ancestral house of the Diwan Haridas Viharidas Desai of Junagadh. There he spent most of his time in the Diwan’s library, where he was thrilled to see some excellent paintings by Raja Ravi Varma, regarded as the greatest Indian painter.

Self-portrait by Raja Ravi Varma

Saraswati by Rajah Ravi Varma

Radha in the Moonlight by Raja Ravi Varma

In Swami’s words, “If education is identical with information the libraries are the greatest Sages in the world, and encyclopedias are the Rishis.” I have to add here that Swamiji having a unique photographic memory, read half of the volumes of the Encyclopedia Britannica only once, and remembered every word in it.

Nawab Bahadur Khanji III with his State Officials, including Diwan Haridas Viharidas Desai

Diwan died after a brief illness on 17 June 1895 at Nadiad. The whole town mourned his death and newspaper articles in India and abroad lamented his death. The Amrit Bazar Patrika (Calcutta), dated 30 June 1895 remarked “In him, India has lost one of her best sons.” London (Editorial) September 1895 remarked “By the death of Mr Haridas Viharidas, India has suffered a great and lamentable loss. People of India had no more unselfish, simple-minded and enlightened champion.” Swami Vivekananda wrote in a letter dated 2 March 1896 from New York to Tatya Saheb, nephew of Haridasji “Your uncle was a great soul and his whole life was given to do good to his country. He was a strong noble friend and India has lost a good deal in losing him.”

Swamiji’s next stop was Baroda (now Vadodara), the capital of the Gaekwads, where he put up at the residence of the Minister of the State. The earliest record of the city is in a grant or charter of 812 CE that mentions it as Vadapadraka, a hamlet attached to the town of Ankottaka. In the 10th century, Vadapadraka displaced Ankottaka as the urban centre. It seems also to have been known as Chandanavati, named for Raja Chandan of the Dor Rajputs, who wrested it from the Jainas. The city underwent periodic renamings: Varavati, Vatpatraka, Baroda, and, in 1971, Vadodara.

The history of Vadodara falls into a Hindu period (until 1297); a period under the Muslim Delhi sultanate (1297–c. 1401); an independent Gujarat sultanate, during which the nucleus of the present city was built (c. 1401–c. 1573); a Mughal Empire period (c. 1573–1734); and a Maratha period, during which it became the capital of the powerful Gaekwad dynasty (1734–1947).

Swamiji came to know that the prince of Limbdi was at Mahabaleswar, where he stayed with Thakore Sahib for about two and half months.

Lakshmi Villa Palace, Baroda

Swamiji then moved to Poon, having with him Thakore’s recommendation with him, and from there he went to Khandwa sometime towards the end of June 1892. Khandwa is identified with the Kognabanda of the Greek geographer Ptolemy and is traditionally said to have been surrounded by the Khandava forests that were described in the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata. In the 12th century CE, the city was an important seat of Jain worship.

Omkareshwar Temple, Khandwa

At Khandwa, Swamiji was a guest at the residence of Babu Haridas Chatterjee, a pleader in Khandwa of Bengali origin. Swamiji stayed there for about three weeks and then moved to Indore, and from there returned to Khandwa once again. This time he was acquainted with Akshay Kumar Ghosh, who was later adopted by an English lady. Miss Muller, and was subsequently instrumental in Swamiji’s visit to England from America in October 1894.  It was at Khandwa that Swamiji first expressed his desire to attend the Parliament of World’s Religions at Chicago, of which he had first heard at Kathiawar.

Buddhist Cave at Kanheri

Swamiji left for Bombay sometime in July that year and was introduced to Seth Ramdas Chhabildas, a noted barrister in Bombay, who later travelled with him to Chicago. It was at Bombay that Swamiji came to know that the educated section of Bengal had opposed the Age of Consent Bill, and was very much pained to hear so.  On the positive side, during his stay at Bombay, Swamiji visited the 109 Buddhist caves of Kanheri situated some twenty miles north of the city. This visit stirred him deeply as he felt that he lived here in a previous life.

Kanheri Caves

Swamiji stayed in Bombay for about two months and then left for Poona. As fate would have it, Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak was travelling at the same time and he was introduced to Swamiji. He stayed at Tilak’s place in Poona for about ten days, during which time he visited the Deccan Club with Tilak and gave an impromptu philosophical discourse which revealed to everyone present there his depth of knowledge on the subject.  After this incident, people came to him in large numbers to know more about the Gita and the Upanishads.

Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak, visionary leader

The next, Swamiji moved to Kolhapur. He gave the local Maharaja the introductory letter that had been given to him by the Maharaja of Bhavnagar. The Maharani of Kolhapur became a devotee of Swamiji and was able to persuade him to accept a new ochre cloth. After a short stay there, Swamiji moved southwards and reached Belgaum around 15th October 1892. The city dates from the 12th century. It later exercised strategic control over the plateau routes to Goa and the Arabian Sea coast to the southwest. Its early name, Venugrama, is said to have been derived from the bamboos characteristic of the region. A melting pot for the Kannada, Konkani, Marathi, and Goan cultures, modern Belgaum includes the original cantonment, the site of an oval stone fortress with a 16th-century mosque and of two Jaina temples, and the suburbs of Shahpur and Madhavpur.

Gokak Falls, Belgaum

At Belgaum, Swamiji was the guest of a Maharashtrian gentleman who knew the private secretary of the Maharaja of Kolhapur. From the records of Prof. G.S. Bhate – the son of his host at Belgaum – it is found that the non-conforming flesh-eating Hindu monk, who had a deep grounding in Sanskript scriptures, initially upset his hosts. However, they soon discovered his extraordinary personality which as usual endeared him to the local gentility.

Beautiful Goa

From Belgaum, Swamiji reached Goa, which was then a Portuguese colony. Goa, now a state of India, comprises a mainland district on the country’s southwestern coast and an offshore island. It is located about 250 miles (400 km) south of Mumbai (Bombay). One of India’s smallest states, it is bounded by the states of Maharashtra on the north and Karnataka on the east and south and by the Arabian Sea on the west. The capital is Panaji (Panjim), on the north-central coast of the mainland district. Formerly a Portuguese possession, it became a part of India in 1962 and attained statehood in 1987.

A typical Portuguese villa in Goa

In Goa, Swamiji adopted the name Sachchidanand. The news of his arrival at Margao preceded him, and he was taken in a procession to the house of his host Subrai Naik, a learned gentleman, and friend of Dr. V.V. Shirgaonkar of Belgaum. The main object of Swamiji’s visit to Goa was to study Christian theology from old Latin texts and manuscripts which in India were available in Goa alone. Subrai Naik introduced Swamiji to a learned Christian friend of his, J.P. Alvares, who made immediate arrangements for Swamiji’s stay at the Rachol Seminary.

Rachol Seminary, Goa

Here rare religious literature in Latin, both in the form of manuscripts and print, were kept. Swamiji stayed at the Seminary for three days, and his diligence and grasp of the subject gained him friends from the Church as well. Subrai Naik became an ardent follower of Swamiji, and later on even sanyas, and became Swami Subramanayanand Tirtha. The room in Subrai Naik’s house, where Swamiji stayed, is still preserved in Vivekananda’s memory by Naik’s descendants, shown below.

Vidhana Soudha, a Government Office in Bangalore

Swamiji left Margao by train for Bangalore via Dharwar.

Mysore Palace

At Mysore, Swamiji was residing at the Maharaja Shri Chamarajendra Wadiyar’s palace, in his own apartment. The Maharaja was greatly impressed by ‘such a brilliancy of thought, such a charm of personality, such wide learning, and such penetrating religious insight.’ In Mysore, he impressed Muslims with his knowledge of the Koran, others at the palace with his knowledge of Western music, and even an engineer installing the electricity at the palace with his knowledge of electricity. The Maharaja became greatly attached to Swamiji and promised to sponsor his visit to the West after hearing about the mission.

Maharaja Shri Chamarajendra Wadiyar

Swamiji left for Shornur, the gateway to Trichur. From there Swamiji moved to the state of Kodungalloor, famous for its Kali temple, and also a seat of Sanskrit learning.

Pooram Festival in Trichur

From there Swamiji went to Ernakulam, the capital of Kochi State. Ernakulam has played a part in the political history of south India since ancient times. The Jewish, Syrians, Arab, Chinese, Dutch, British, and Portuguese seafarers followed the sea route to the Kingdom of Cochin and left their impressions on the town. In 1896, the Maharaja of Cochin initiated local administration by forming a town council in Ernakulam. Initially, the district’s headquarters were located in the portion of the city known as Ernakulam, which gave the district its name; the headquarters was relocated afterwards to Kakkanad.

Old Ernakulam

Swamiji left for Thiruvananthapuram around 6th December 1892, which was the capital of the state of Travancore.

Kalidas

While there he held discussions with various scholars and would traverse from Spencer to Shakespeare and Kalidas, from Darwin’s Theory of Evolution to Jewish History, from Aryan civilisation to the Vedas, and from Islam to Christianity. He would say that of all living beings, “man alone has a hunger in his heart to know the whence and whither, the whys and wherefores of things.”

Vivekananda Rock Memorial

En route to Rameswaram, on 22nd December 1892, Swamiji reached Kanyakumari where he meditated on the rocks, now known as the Vivekananda Rocks. Swamiji wanted to meditate on the holy rock but there was no boatman and so, he plunged into the sea and swam across. His meditation lasted three days, during which he had a vision of the greatness and weaknesses that characterised his India.  He recognised that it was not religion that brought about the downfall of India, but rather the diversions in the practice thereof, and realised that his country “shall rise only through a renewal and restoration of that highest spiritual consciousness that has made her the cradle of the nations, and the cradle of Faith.” That is, through the reinstatement of the culture of the rishis, the dominance of the priestly classes, the despotic caste system, and the divisions that it created in the social body making the majority of its followers outcasts, were insurmountable barriers to the progress of the Indian nation. He wanted to help the downtrodden masses and thought that he could earn money in America by the power of his brain.

Rameswaram Temple

He left Kanyakumari to go to Rameswaram, which is immortalised in Ramayana as the place from where Hanuman and his monkey bridged the strait between India and Lanka, now Sri Lanka where Ravana held Sita captive. Recent NASA specialised photographs do indicate the existence of such a bridge. It is said that after winning the war with Ravana and rescuing Sita from Sri Lanka, Sri Rama set up a Shiva-lingam at Rameswaram. Swamiji Vivekananda had all along cherished a desire to pay his obeisance to Lord Shiva at this temple. Thus reaching Rameswaram was the culmination of his pilgrimage through India.

The life of a parivrajaka or wandering monk unfolded not only the character of the places that he visited but also a multitude of characters that would have otherwise remained uninitiated. Like the sweetmeat shop owner, who had a dream in which Ram directed him to take food to hungry Swamiji at Tari Ghat station, and was indeed the manifestation of a holy soul. Or the low caste poor man, who observed Swamiji talking continuously to the never-ending stream of visitors for three consecutive days without food or drink, and then very shakily agreed to cook food for Swamiji after a lot of persuasions, could not have been a lesser devotee of Swamijithan than his sovereign, the Maharaja of Khetri. His own realisation of the soul being the centre of power was as much illumination from within, as the eternity of the soul, “no fear nor death, never was I born, never did I die.” His soul glowed with the love for humanity and through his teachings, contained in 8 volumes, he will live forever.

The Publisher of this book, Swami Tattwavidananda, at Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati, Champawat, Uttarakhand, Himalayas, wrote:

“The whole world will remain ever indebted to Goodwin for his great role in handing down for posterity the immortal words of the great Swami.”

and in the words of the man himself, Swami Vivekananda:

“The debt of gratitude I owe him can never be repaid and those who think they have been helped by any thought of mine, ought to know that almost every word of it was published through the untiring and most unselfish exertion of Mr. Goodwin. In him, I have lost a friend true as still, a disciple of never-failing devotion, a worker who knew not what tiring was and the world is less rich by one of those few who are born, as it were, to live for others.”

Many thanks to the publisher, Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati, Champawat, Uttarakhand, Himalayas, for publishing the newest beautiful edition of The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda.

 

I have completed so far over 10,000 words of two treatises on Swami Vivekananda’s life; it has to be a triptych as I haven’t shown the many interesting events of his tour of America and Europe. I will also write about the relationship between Nikola Tesla and Swami Vivekananda as readers have requested. See you next week.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

82 thoughts on “Great Books of the World – Part 17

  1. Great details of Swami Vivekananda life and visits throughout the world. Your details are such beautifully explained that I feel, I was also travelling with Swamiji! Nice

    Liked by 4 people

  2. Thank you very much, you are very kind! You will travel the world next week with Swamiji as. it will be Amerika, England, Italy, Alps and more….

    Swamiji wanted to see and to know everything

    Joanna

    Liked by 2 people

  3. Thank you again, greatly appreciated.

    Joanna

    Liked by 1 person

  4. I was just mesmerised with the beautiful pics and commentary thereon. In fact I revisited all the places mentioned in your post, except Tehri Garhwal and Junagarh, which I have yet to visit. You have given good history of India too. I had no idea that Muslims had anything to do with Shatrunjaya mountain.

    I think his stay at Khetri was a turning point, where its Maharaja Ajit Singh gave him name of Vivekananda (the bliss of discerning wisdom) before he left for Chicago. During his short lifespan, he visited so many places, he came into contact with so many people like Goodwin and Tesla, and made so many disciples including Sister Nivedita. It’s astonishing.

    I also loved the concept of eternity of soul, “no life no death, never was I born, never did I.” In all, again an interesting and informative post. Thank you. Looking forward to the next post.

    Liked by 2 people

  5. Wow, this was quite an interesting read! I wasn’t aware of how widely he’d travelled and to think it doesn’t end here is incredible. I remember reading one of his poems ‘My Play is Done’ and being mesmerised at his writing, it really does provide a glimpse into his mind’s inner workings. It was lovely to go along on a journey he took years ago, very well written write as always, Joanna!
    On my way to read the prequel now!

    Liked by 4 people

  6. Thank you so much for your insightful comments. I am astonished that you have travelled all over India. As to Naren’s name, it was a little bit more involved. Swamiji originally wanted to take the name Ramakrishnanand but seeing Shashi’s devotion to the Master, let him have it. He changed his name twice, but it is correct that on the eve of his departure for Chicago, and at the request of the Maharaja of Khetri in May 1893, he once again adopted the name of Swamiji Vivekananda, he was using before.
    Next week will be interesting, as everything connected with Swamiji always is. I have a feeling that I am like putty in his spiritual hands.
    Reading his works is always fascinating -the stories, the parables, the arguments for, there is nothing that one could be bored with.
    Thank you, and see you here next week.

    Joanna

    Liked by 3 people

  7. Goodness, D, you do move in mysterious ways! Ok, so you read both, and next week will be his world tour, and the end of Swamiji odyssey but every time I want to move away, he “pulls” me back. And no, I haven’t been taking any hallucinating drugs! His spirit has the power from beyond the other side. I am also mesmerised by the power of his words.
    Thank you, and see you next week.

    Joanna

    Liked by 1 person

  8. Thank you, much appreciated.

    Joanna

    Liked by 2 people

  9. What a journey! Three years of travel with so much life and living!

    Liked by 3 people

  10. Thank you, Ashley, for your generous comment, greatly appreciated.

    Joanna

    Liked by 2 people

  11. I have now visited all states and UTs. Only Kashmir and Odisha had been left out, but I covered two years back. Coming back to Swami, I really wonder whether such a person had ever lived. He was such a wonderful person. I’m sure the next post will also be interesting one. Thank you!!

    Liked by 1 person

  12. Just to deserve your praise (and Swamij’si!) I will do my very best, KK. I agree, he does seem to be like someone who was left here just for a short while to leave a message and then to go back.

    Joanna

    Liked by 2 people

  13. Thank you again!

    Joanna

    PS Thank you for the lovely remark on your side!

    Liked by 1 person

  14. I know your level of perfection. I’ll eagerly wait for your next post. Thank you.

    Like

  15. You are always welcome, Joanna. Thanks.

    Liked by 1 person

  16. These pictures are amazing. Loving the detail of the architecture. I was intrigued by Swami Vivekananda and his relationship with many different faiths (Jainist and Muslims). And also the photographic memory is such an interesting detail. To be able to have that much knowledge to pull from seems exceedingly rare and exceptional. This was one nice trip! So much to unpack. Let’s do it again next week.

    Liked by 3 people

  17. Thank you, Benjamin, very much. Swamiji was also greatly knowledgeable about Christianity (One of his favourite two books he carried with him was The Following of Christ by Thomas a Kempis), I will expand on this next week. There will be more unpacking to do in the next post. See you there. And yes, I agree, Swamiji was an exceptional person.

    Joanna

    Liked by 3 people

  18. Thank you, again!!

    Joanna

    Liked by 1 person

  19. Oh, he was well-educated on many of the religions of the world. That’s will be interesting next post. Stay safe! And you’re welcome.

    Liked by 1 person

  20. Three years walking barefoot. I can’t wait for my next life so I can try that.

    Liked by 3 people

  21. Thank you, Jacqui, but why wait for incarnation when you have your daily walk, the path is perfect for barefoot walking.

    Joanna

    Like

  22. Good evening baby chops, till now in my experience I can say, “ you are an expert chopper”. You are very hardworking and committed. Your spiritual lifestyle and hunger to gain more knowledge have opened several doors for you.

    I 😔apologise for reading your post so late…I’ve requested you to write it in our conversations on your last post. Your more readers get benefitted from this post. It is valuable. Thank you for your patience.

    As always, you have written the post beautifully, I travelled all India with you and Swamiji. The places, personalities, events, stories and the whole journey is beautiful.

    Swamiji’s magnetic character and behaviour attract everyone towards him and they become his disciples. Such a great person is never going to happen again. As I told you previously, we should try to follow his rules to live a better life. As Swamiji has not given any mantra, an individual should try in his or her own way to help the people, sacrifice for humanity.

    Two years ago, when I was in the 12th class, I had read a book by a famous indian author ‘ Narendra Kohli’ named “ Swami Vivekananda ”. The book changed my life completely. The author has shown so much devotion and love for Swamiji that I can not stop myself to ‘ live the life of Swami Vivekananda. It is true, I want to know ‘ who am I’ and where is the God? How does he look like? I don’t believe other people I want to check myself. I’ve asked these questions to everyone, my friends, teachers, elders, my parents and they know nothing.
    I cannot leave my home like Swamiji because I have do feed my family, I have to take care of my brother and my family. When I have enough resources for my family to continue their life, then I’ll start my journey to live my dreams.
    I am not fully mature and I still rely on my parents, so for now, my primary duty is to take care of my family. They need me.

    I never imagined while reading the book on Swami Vivekananda that one day I’ll meet you who will clarify my interest and devotion for him. Thank you.

    Liked by 3 people

  23. Sorry for name mistake by autocorrect “ gabychops ”.

    Liked by 1 person

  24. Dear Loku, could we please stick to my name, the one I sign all my comments with? It is JOANNA. Please.
    Gaby chops relate to the hedgehog someone who originally set the blog for me registered as a name, Silly really,
    I certainly don’t answer when called – Chops!

    Joanna

    Liked by 2 people

  25. Now, back to your extraordinarily wonderful comments (minus Chops, etc)
    I have to say, that you are such a nice, intelligent, eager to learn and make amends if you do something not quite right, a young man that I cannot be annoyed with for long.
    Thank you for the name of the book, I will try to get it today. Again, as I wrote before, your main, enviable quality is your honesty.
    You write like you think, and this is very attractive. Swamiji statement: “I have understood this as the highest truth: God is present in every being. There is no other God besides that. He who serves all beings serves God indeed.”

    I think you don’t need to ask anyone, there is the answer. I understand your very honourable, noble, obligations to your family.
    You are very young and you have your long life stretching before you. Be patient. As I promised you before, anything you want to know about, ask me. You have my email nature@kitsbury.plus.com

    Thank you for your words of appreciation, greatly valued.

    Joanna

    Liked by 2 people

  26. Just to tell you that there is no English translation of Narendra Kohli’s book and for that reason, I couldn’t buy it.

    Joanna

    Like

  27. Dearest Joanna,
    I’m a huge fan of Swami Vivekananda and with this topic today you can be sure of me revisiting this post again and again. Such details you’ve covered… wonderful post and indeed one of my favourite ❤️
    Richa

    Liked by 2 people

  28. Thank you, Dear Richa, it is very kind of you to find time in your busy schedule and read and comment so generously. To my surprise, as I didn’t know about his existence until KK, ‘told’ me, I found Swamiji an extraordinary human being. You read the first part, and now the second, and next week the last one (hopefully!) as the more I read his words, I feel, the more of his thoughts need to be shown to the world. In the world of intolerance and division, which is sadly as strong today, as it was in his time, he had the open-mindedness to never exclude anyone.

    Joanna

    Liked by 1 person

  29. Thank you, Dearest Richa, I greatly appreciate your comment.

    Joanna

    Liked by 1 person

  30. I, too, loved the architecture, Benjamin! 🌞

    Liked by 3 people

  31. Hi Joanna, you have composed another interesting read for us here. I particularly enjoyed hearing about Swamiji’s followers & the chasing monkeys. Such colorful life details of this great man. And the architecture in the pics you have shared is just stunning! Looking forward to next week’s continuation! 🌞

    Liked by 1 person

  32. Thank you, Lisa, you are as interested in this great man as I am! I feel that I owe to any writer I write about to make interesting with unknown details. You will like next week’s post – many glorious pictures.

    Joanna

    Liked by 1 person

  33. Thank you again, and see you, Lisa, next week.

    Joanna

    Liked by 1 person

  34. Thank you for taking me along on a wonderful journey. Great post and as always, I have learned so much along the way.

    Liked by 1 person

  35. Thank you so much for such a kind comment. It is always a pleasure to ‘talk’ with you. We might have a Tea at the Savoy, one day.
    I think Swamiji would love to be there too.. Next week you will enjoy the tour of Europe in particular, as Swamiji was a connoisseur of history, arts, and culture with the capital “C”.

    Joanna

    Liked by 1 person

  36. Thank you again, and see you soon.

    Joanna

    Liked by 1 person

  37. Joanna,

    I’m going to dinner and then I read your new article with great happiness !!!
    see you soon
    Strong ❤️

    Liked by 1 person

  38. Looking forward to that, thank you so much 😊

    Like

  39. Joanna,
    The story of Swami Vivekananda’s life, of this sage, is as fascinating as it is impressive, but it is also infinitely precious to us for understanding the whole spiritual dimension, and the influence that this man left in India and much more widely in humanity. It is stunning that such a person exists, his intelligence and the vastness of his emotional perceptions leaves me speechless. Hence the inevitable and understandable veneration that it triggers and which is indisputable.
    By reading the rest of all this work that you devote to this gentleman, I actually thought back to his assistant Mr. Goodwin, who left by his dedication a deep testimony, of quality and faithful to the word of the man and whose scope and value are invaluable.
    I know I’m repeating myself, but what is striking is that he died so young. He had time to leave a powerful spiritual legacy and I dare say it “eternal”.
    His travel reminded me of my modest trip to Rajasthan that I loved doing so much. I will have to write an article about it, but at the moment I totally lack the energy to write on this subject.

    I am happy to know that there will be a follow-up to your article, because like the other readers I was very interested in this meeting with Tesla, who is also a man with a fascinating destiny.

    Hope you are doing well Joanna.
    Don’t be surprised when you see that I’m late in coming to read you. And more than anything, don’t worry about it. At the moment I am running out of time more and more. It bothers me a lot, but that’s how it is …

    je t’embrasse très fort
    Take care, dear Joanna 💖
    Corinne

    Liked by 1 person

  40. My Dear Corinne, no matter when you can read the posts, as long that you can find the time. It does worry me what you have written, and please remember, like the last time at Christmas, if you would like to talk privately my email is nature@kitsbury.plus.com
    The next post is interesting in a different way and Tesla’s inventions are quite astonishing.
    Swamiji’s extraordinary presence was partly due to his vast knowledge as he could persuade anyone to change their mind.
    I love his philosophy because he was open-minded, rejected nobody because of their colour, race, gender, religion, or anything else that is used to divide people.

    Je t’embrasse tres fort, Corinne, and thank you.

    Joanna

    Liked by 2 people

  41. Joanna,

    In my eyes, this is what makes him a wise man:
    “to understand the human in all its multiplicity, its singularity and to work so that it does not divide …”

    I’m fine, don’t worry, but I’m going through a little existential crisis with writing.
    In the blog I do not feel free to write everything I would like to express.
    I have the feeling that I am now tucked away in a little box, “positive blog, feelgoodism …”, and sometimes I would like to describe deeper and sadder things or experiences.

    As recently as yesterday, I was watching a report on a lady of Gypsy origin whose family was decimated during World War II and was sent to the death camps.
    She said that for a long time she hated the Germans for the harm they did to her whole family, and to her ethnic group.
    And then one day she began to write, to write again, to empty her heart. To never feel the hatred again.
    She realized that she managed to soothe her soul, because her writing was addressed to her soul.
    I found it beautiful.
    This simple woman said one essential thing, her vision and her action brought light to her whole being.

    So I’m wondering about future articles, I’m not sure that the people who like me will be able to welcome them … and yet this blog is kind of my home;)

    je t’embrasse fort
    Corinne

    Liked by 1 person

  42. Dear Corinne,
    Please don’t be annoyed with me but what would be the point of writing a blog that will make a reader depressed, upset or angry? Surely, blog writing has to be by definition uplifting, positive, and making you feel that the world isn’t such a bad place because there are millions of people out there who share the same need for love, compassion, and hope. Do we have the moral right to rob them of them? You can write a book about the darker side of your thoughts but not a blog. The reason you like reading mine is that I make consciously sure that everything is factual but bad facts are not included. If when writing about India I would write about all that is happening there, not only I would offend people, but also wipe out the positive image I have set out to convey. I had many bad, terrible happenings in my life but the habit of “stiff upper lip”, as opposed to” let it all hang out” works much better for our resilience and our mental state.

    Je t’embrasse fort,
    Joanna

    Liked by 2 people

  43. What a beautiful comprehensive post Joanna with extrodinary pictures.
    It is truly a blessing the life that Swamiji lived and his teachings.
    Thank you for the gift of blessing us with his stories and heart.
    💖

    Liked by 1 person

  44. I had written a long comment and was still writing when a call came in. After the long call I couldn’t find that 😌

    Liked by 1 person

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